Sorghum summer forage with irrigation
What is still sowing? Which way to go?
North of the municipality of Cajeme, Sonora and not exactly in the heart of the Yaqui Valley, were conducted experimental trials in July with two cooperating producers to compare the productive behavior of six varieties of forage sorghum, with seeds treated in Texas. Hybrids of Anzu Genetics of Tamaulipas with Karamelo seed, Green Pacas, BMR 6 and Centurion against Sweet grazer and commercial Sudan were planted in lots one hectare of each.
It is concluded that these hybrids require a fractional fertilization of (350-150-50-20) NPKS to express their genetic potential for harvesting 80 tons of green forage per hectare. February sowing allows repeated sowing cuts during the crop cycle 80, 60, 40 Tn FV / ha. This practice involves more inputs applied by cutting. Nitrogen is incorporated 1/3 in proceeding and the rest can be distributed in staggered applications with the following irrigations. The common denominator of irrigated forage producers is to harvest only the natural fertility of the soil, without the use of fertilizers.
Germination was irrigated and four summer rains were present. In spite of being high sorghum, mechanical and foliar (herbicide) control of weeds (quelite, malva, stafiate, correhuela) required to improve germination, population density and emergence of developing plants. In the beginning during the birth, sorghums do not compete satisfactorily against weeds.
A sandy loam farm with stones, dedicated to the rearing of sheep, was sown in volcanoes at 80 centimeters, with a density of 20 kilograms of seed per hectare. The other farmer with sandy loam soil was used a precision seed drill applying 6 kilograms of seed per hectare.
Both germination plants had a 100% germination and therefore a high density that reduced the optimal physiological growth of the plants, using less seed in both cases and achieving a better distribution or space between plants. For its harvest it was cut and packaged aerated in the sun.
For ensiling sorghum can be with grain in panicle or pure forage. Three varieties of sorghums of different sizes can be associated (high, medium and low) to achieve a higher density of vertical plants and quality of harvest. This practice reduces plaque.
In October preparations are made for sowing winter fodder as its germination is favored on cool nights with temperatures below 20 ° C and in this year 2016 temperatures were warm until November 15, which favors the early cut of triticale and oats. This situation of early sowing reduces the infestation (infants) in forages such as ryegrass, barley, canary seed and wheat, which under irrigation can maintain a green pasture until the end of May. Each species is favored in different circumstances so it is recommended the associated mixture of cereals with ryegrass. At the beginning of the night heat, with temperatures above 20 ° C culminates its vegetative cycle. Autumn is ideal for sowing alfalfa cutting CUF 101, a battle horse for many years. Other varieties of Medicago sativa are not ruled out, except that there are no regional quantifications for them. Much agricultural research is needed in the winter group of ryegrasses Lolium multiflorum since there are multiple successful varieties, which should reproduce their seeds adapted to the climate of Sonora and not depend on imports of varieties available at random. Successfully tested seeds must be offered with the highest yields, not just improvising what is available in the import market, even if they are productive varieties.
An ideal option with experimentally proven positive results for fatteners and dairymens for the cold season of the year is the sowing of Trifolium alexandrinum an annual forage legume that does not taint ruminants in grazing, does not swell and suffocate, but that can also be made bales. It is known as Berseem clover, Multi cut, Trialex as well as SB-12, P-22 and Queta. The seed of these varieties of white clover requires to be imported with sanitary laboratory tests. There are other white shamrocks that are very productive but with a certain degree of toxicity affecting the fertility of the herd. Review the literature and consult the regional INIFAP. Personally I could not get seed in Mexico and the UGRS should import this alternative package to offer a more buying option, for the forage producer. If there are volunteers we can try it in August next year.
For spring 2017 as a novelty there are already in the national market with authorization of the SAGARPA hybrids of Japanese sorghum, varieties of coffee venation of INIFAF of high portage and others of sweet giant sorghum of forage seed commercial houses that handle different cultivars of each of these hybrids. Supposedly the yields of 300 tons per hectare of mechanically harvested. The main focus is to ensilage. This initially requires experimental validation tests in Sonora (each forage region in particular) for its subsequent technical recommendation. They are hybrids that are 20 years in the international market and that are just being introduced in Mexico. There is no guarantee of its performance until the corresponding introductory tests are done. If interested, readers can contact me for necessary purchases and preparations. Contact commercial distributors.
Other options less impressive but safe in their harvest are the sowing of milpa cane Saccharum sinensis, marigold sorghum almum, maize creole Zea maiz regional blue, black, red, red, yellow and lilac. There are some who like the johnson Sorghum halepense grass as meadow. Do not discard for any reason the forage crab (not weed) Digitaria sanguinalis of excellent palatability and production. You have to let it resemble to behave as perennial. There are millets that must be included in the repertoire of Pennisetum clandestinum plantings as producers of pre-grains and forage. They are good alternatives that are stopped to plant and the existence of regional seed is being lost.
Passing the last years can already be thinking of planting perennial fodder so that the grasslands are permanently established. The good forage producer should be anticipated at the optimum planting date. They are highly productive crops with summer heat, high relative humidity of the air and sunny days. They are very efficient in the use of water and respond easily with profitable forage to the application of fertilizers. Even in winter, acceptable and non-negligible yields are obtained for harvesting on cold but sunny days. They are susceptible to frost and irrigation regrow without planting again. Of course it requires constant irrigation throughout the year and can easily be associated with other traditional forage crops. In order to graze in grazing pastures the genus Brachiaria predominates: B. decumbens, B. humidicola, B. brizantha, B. dictyoneura, B. mutica with the hybrids Mulato, Cayman, Cobra, Pará and Señal. Although not all brachiaria are excellent forage producers, at least in Sonora, but all have room for each farmer in special situations of climate, water and soil, not all are listed here. Other recommended grasses are: Andropogon gallanus Llanero, Chloris gallana Rhodes bell, Dichanthium annulatum Pretoria 90 and other varieties of Angleton Dichanthium aristatum North Americans available in Mexico. Larger forages are Panicum máximum in which they excel, Mombaza, Tanzania, Guinea, but there are more varieties that can be sowed with success. The option is to innovate to emphasize and not stay behind.
In the Bermuda group there are the Cynodon dactylon with grain seed, which have been sown a lot during 2015-2016: Giant, Cold Ranchero, Common (not to be confused with potential gardens and sports fields) and those that need to be planted with material Vegetative (guides or stolons) are: Callide, Cross I, Cross II, NK 37, Coast, T-44, T-68, T-78, T-85. Other shorts with very good results of 50 Tn FV / ha already tested in Sonora are Cynodon nlemfuensis is the star of Santo Domingo and Cynodon plectostachis known as African star. Varieties and hybrids that should at least be in a demonstration seed bank of fodder species in the universities, agricultural schools of upper secondary education (DGTA-CBTA), regional research centers, available to farmers interested in their cultivation.
Consult your advisor, higher education unit, nearest research center, and a farmer with advanced experience in establishing irrigated meadows. DO NOT FORGET TO PARTICIPATE IN THE DEMOSTRATIVE DAYS AND ATTEND THE SCIENTIFIC CONGRESSES. The updating of knowledge must have priority in the corporate culture. What other perennial fodder can sow? There are options for protein banks.
Ldo. Fernando R. Feuchter
Regional Center of University of Noroeste Colima # 163 north Cd. Obregón Sonora, México