Perennial forage with irrigation
As an option for calf fattening and improvement in herd reproduction
In the tropical forage contest of Tamaulipas are listed the Pennisetum purpureum: They are versatile forages for grazing, chopped green, silage. Maralfalfa, African Reed, Uruguayan, Vruckwona, Taiwan, Elephant, Cameroon, OM-22, Mott Dwarf, Merkeron, King Grass, CT-115. Its genetic potential is 800 ton FV / ha / per year and in Sonora 400 ton harvested could be expected by applying 900 kg of nitrogen during the year, giving cuts every 12 weeks (84-90 days), to achieve a yield of 85 ton dry matter / ha per year. The good local producers reach 250 Ton FV, although the majority goes with yields of around 150 Tn of FV / ha per year in 3-4 cuts. The best seed density is in furrows to 50 centimeters and plants to every 40 cm of distance. That is to increase the population density of plants per hectare. In reality the agro-spatial design depends on the cutting machinery to be used.
Authors suggest the classification of Cenchrus purpureus (Schumacher) brown because of its similarity in inflorescence with forage species of grasshopper Buffel Cenchrus ciliaris. The 20 results of the INIFAP Laboratory show a range of 7-12% crude protein with cut at 90 days and a content of 80% moisture. The culture at 120 days contains an average of 75% moisture with a range of 6-9% of P.C.
In the experimental plot of the CBTA Agricultural Technology Center # 197 of the Providencia DGTA system in the municipality of Cajeme, Sonora, there are also other cloned cultivars of CT-603, CT-169, and Roxio. These last 10 clones have been established with multiple producers of the state of Sonora, transferring the seeds to Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, among others who have purchased these clones. Brazil EMRAPA is releasing the cultivars of Kurumi dwarf, Canara and BRS Capacu as very productively. An institutional effort must be made to obtain these genetic materials. I have contacts if anyone wants to support.
This species in which the planting of Maralfalfa grass predominates, are cultivars (varieties) of high forage yields with 350 hay bales per hectare per cut, of 23 kilos each, since in symbiosis the species can fix from 15 to 50% of their needs with nitrogen from the air. This is a reason for producers who do not want to fertilize with NPKS and use of organic fertilizers and soil improvers.
The perennial establishment represents an imminent and indisputable saving of the use of water, efficient yields by surface and time, financial economic profitability (credit) and improves the sustainability of the next agricultural cycles by increasing the productive parameters of the cattle herd. They help the control and eradication of weeds as well as to improve the porosity of compacted soil.
With the arrival of the aerator to the Regional Livestock Union of Sonora for the rehabilitation of grasslands it is pertinent to establish breeding seedlings of Bandeita Bouteloua curtipendula and other 57 species of the genus Bouteloua: B. rothrockii, B Eriopoda, B. gracilis, B.hirsuta, B. repens and many other native ones reported by COTECOCA as desirable in each site of the pasture, typical of the natural.
With the same tenor of the use of the aerator in the temporary is the reproduction of sorghums for grain of free pollination of INIFAP Sinaloa and Laguna. This means that they are not hybrids and can be saved viable seed for planting. RB Paloma, Amber T, Matinal, Gavatero 203, Sinaloense 202, Costeño 201, Pearl 101, Early yellow. It is true that the yellow aphid has not allowed the summer crops to advance in temporary and many seeds have been lost, forcing other alternatives. Planting dates can be anticipated since January to make 2 grain harvests during the year and one more bales. Also in grass buffel could be made seedlings guaranteed with pure seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (Pennisetum ciliaris) of Biloela, Formidable, buffel, Llano, Molopo, Regio, Titán, etc. UNISON Santana and INIFAP Sonora have experts, where they can provide better suggestions. I only mention the alternatives.
Among the legumes in this article only has been spoken about alfalfa, the queen of fodder. If there are a need to plant other leguminous plants for whatever reasons we must consider the favorites that are perfectly associated with the meadows of grasses: Include Cajanus cajan, Neonotonia wightii, Clitroia ternatea already tested in Sonora with high yields, easy Adaptation and establishment, ideal as protein banks. Experimental tests should be introduced with Pueraria phaseoloides, Cratylia argentea, which are very promising, although their first sowing has not been easy to achieve.
Underneath the fruit crops of walnut, olive, orange, persimmon, cactus, vine, etc. should be associated with Arachis foraging peanut, a suggested option for grazing under trees, reducing weeds with less trawling. The champion of the fixation of nitrogen of the air by the plants in symbiosis is the Sesbania rostrata that in addition can be incorporated to the ground like green fertilizer. It surpasses Sesbania sesban widely known in Sonora. It is necessary to incorporate the young plant to the ground so that it does not become trunk (tree) and then it cannot be buried with the fallow. It is not very appetizing for cattle directly grazing, but can be cut in green and grind together with the daily ration.
Several options of forage species and alternative pasture associations have been mentioned; But, which is the way that I must follow?
Everything must go according to an individual work plan for each producer. Do not stand with your arms crossed plan according to the availability of resources for each case. THERE IS NO RECIPE FOR ALL LAND AND FORAGE SPECIES FOR EVERY SITUATION. What does exist is technology to improve each land and forage species for each occasion. You have to know what applies well.
Consult your advisor, extension brigade, higher education unit, nearest research center, and a farmer with advanced experience in establishing irrigated meadows. DO NOT FORGET TO PARTICIPATE IN THE DEMOSTRATIVE DAYS AND ATTEND THE SCIENTIFIC CONGRESSES. The updating of knowledge must have priority in the corporate culture.
Ldo. Fernando R. Feuchter
Regional Center of University of Noroeste Colima # 163 north Cd. Obregón Sonora, México