Overview of egg and broiler production in Mexico
Poultry farming dedicated to egg and broiler production in Mexico plays a very important role in the Mexican economy.
Poultry farming stands out globally for being a highly organized, strengthened, and technified livestock production system. Egg and broiler production supply the high demand for food that mankind imposes every year. Human population growth requires efficient and nutritious food production.
Eggs stand out as one of the most efficient proteins of animal origin in their production and of high nutritional value. It is an easily accessible food source both economically and logistically. On the other hand, egg production is one of the engines of the economy in a country like Mexico, which has many small and medium-sized producers dedicated to this livestock area. It is estimated that this industry has grown close to 150% in the last decades.
The broiler is one of the most efficient animals in existence thanks to its fast development rate, excellent feed conversion rate, and high nutritional value of its meat. In addition, it is the meat that emits the least greenhouse gas emissions and generates the least pollution.
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Poultry farming in Mexico in recent figures
Poultry farming in Mexico has become the most dynamic livestock activity in the country. According to recent figures, it represents 64.3% of Mexico’s livestock production. It is estimated that out of every 10 kg of animal protein produced, 6 kg corresponds to poultry products such as chicken, eggs, or turkey.
Concerning Mexico’s GDP, poultry farming contributed 0.89% of total GDP during 2019. For the agricultural GDP, this productive sector contributed 28.1%. Finally, it should be noted that Mexican poultry farming accounted for 36.6% of the livestock GDP.
To sustain the high production needed by poultry farms, many inputs are required. Some of these inputs are related to facilities, equipment, feed, vaccination instruments, transportation, among others. It is estimated that from 2008 to 2019 the consumption of these agricultural products grew by 17.5%.
Thus, it is evident that poultry farming in Mexico generates direct and indirect jobs that contribute significantly to the economy. According to 2020 figures, the poultry sector generated 1’073,000 indirect jobs and 215,000 direct jobs.
Finally, according to 2019 figures, the poultry population was 541 million, distributed as follows: 163 million layers, 310 million broilers, and 459,000 turkeys.
Broiler production in Mexico, overall situation
Broiler production in 2020 in Mexico was approximately 3’500,000 tons of meat, which meant a growth of 1.5% compared to 2019.
Broiler production is centralized in five states. According to 2018 figures, the state of Mexico that produced the most broiler chicken was Jalisco with 11.6% of the national total, with 373,000 tons. The second state was Veracruz with 11.1% of the national total, with 357,000 tons. In third place was Queretaro with 11%, contributing 354,000 tons. The fourth was Aguascalientes with 10.5%, generating 338,000 tons of chicken meat. In fifth place was Durango, which contributed 8.6% and generated 276,000 tons.
Other states that produce a significant amount of broiler chicken in Mexico are Puebla, Chiapas, Guanajuato, Yucatán, Sinaloa, Estado de México, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Morelos, Hidalgo, and Nayarit.
The main sales channels for broiler chicken in Mexico are live chicken (37%), rotisserie/rotisserie (37%), markets (9%), supermarkets (3%), by piece (11%), and value-added products (3%).
Finally, Mexico is the sixth largest broiler chicken producer in the world.
Egg production in Mexico
Mexico stands out globally as the country that consumes the most table eggs since per capita consumption is 28 kg per year, which is equivalent to almost one egg per day.
Mexico ranks fourth in global egg production with approximately 127.4 million cartons (each carton contains 350 units). This places it after China, the United States, and India. Mexico is ahead of countries such as Brazil and Russia. Egg production in Mexico for 2020 was 2.9 million tons, which represented a 2.8% increase over 2019. On the other hand, in the last decade egg production increased close to 20%, demonstrating a steady and significant growth.
According to 2018 figures, the states that recorded the highest egg production were in first place Jalisco with 53.8% of the national total, with 1’300,558 tons. In second place was Puebla with 17.3%, reaching 417,000 tons. The third state with the highest production was Sonora, with 4.9%, registering 118,000 tons. In fourth place was San Luis Potosí with 3.4%, reaching 82,000 tons. The fifth position was occupied by Yucatan with 3.1% nationally, registering 74,000 tons. Other states involved in egg production in Mexico are Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, and Guanajuato.
Egg production use is usually distributed in three ways: 77% is sold in small markets and central supply centers, 15% in self-service stores, and 8% for industrial use.
Importance of corn in poultry farming in Mexico.
According to 2018 figures, corn consumption in Mexico was 44.5 million tons, of which 19.5 were destined for livestock production. It is estimated that, in recent years, corn consumption increased 31% as demand from the livestock sector motivated this growth. This growth in demand has led to an increase in domestic corn production, as well as sustaining the number of imports to meet the demand for this raw material. For example, sorghum, another important raw material in Mexico, has sufficient domestic production to cover the national poultry demand.
Corn production in Mexico went from 24 metric tons per year in 2014, to produce 28 metric tons in 2018. In addition, 15.2 metric tons of corn were imported this year. According to this, domestic corn production in Mexico is expected to increase, since by 2025 the demand for this raw material is expected to reach 55 metric tons.
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The broiler poultry and egg production industry occupy an important margin in the world’s livestock industry. Both poultry sectors contribute to the food security of the world and Latin America.
Poultry farming in Mexico generates more than 1 million direct and indirect jobs and contributes significantly to the total national GDP and livestock GDP. In addition, the poultry sector is one of the industries that generate the most income for rural workers and small and medium-sized producers.
Mexico stands out as one of the largest broiler chicken producers in the world, occupying the sixth position. In addition, Mexico is among the world’s top egg producers. It is also the country with the highest per capita consumption of eggs in the world, which significantly boosts egg production.
Finally, in the raw materials market, corn occupies a prominent position in supplying the demand for poultry feed in Mexico. Therefore, domestic production and imports have increased in recent years to meet demand.