Aromatic Pronutrients in Aviculture and its use. Part 1
Aromatic plants contain substances of vital importance for its biology whose presence allows to the plant, attracting animals who will help to their diffusion, at the same time that will be a defence mechanism against micro-organisms that will allow their seed to stand on the environment longer.
The evolution of plants, has conditioned through this substances the behaviour of animals and the reproduction of plants.There are several substances that phylogenetic can study in this line of knowledges but of their effect on aviculture we will highlight three: Anetol, Eugenol and Cimenol.
Anetol (C10H12O) is a compound whose chemic name is trans-1-methoxy-4-(prop-1-enil) benzene is an aromatic unsaturated etherand is also known as parapropenylanilose. There is plenty of it in fennel, anise and star anise. In animal feed it is used as flavouring.
Eugenol (C10H12O2) is an aromatic compound of chemical name 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol and its chemical structure corresponds to allylnebene that is also known phenylpropane. There is plenty of it in nutmeg and cinnamon. It is used in several industries as stabilizing, antioxidant and flavouring. In animal feed it is used as flavouring.
Cimenol (C10H16) is an aromatic compound whose chemical name is 5-methyl-2-isopropilphen and its chemical structure corresponds to a terpene also known as terpineol. There is plenty of it in citrics, thyme and rosemary. It is used by its antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. In animal feed it is used as preservative and antioxidant.
Nutritionists and poultry producers use the properties of this natural product for the preservation of the grain and the balanced feed because of its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.
2. Poultry Physiology and its connection with the use of aromatic pronutrients.
Vertebrates encephalic stem is made of a 15 pairs of ganglions chain, also called lobes or nucleous, which have evolved during 600 million years from the also named “cord stairs” of anelids. The level of development of each pair of anglions in one animal specie has an influence on its sensorial and motive capability.
The level of development of each pair is measured according to its relative weight compared to the encephalic stem total weight, and craneal nerves diameter which emerge from each ganglion and connect it to sensitive organ ( in our case olfactive mucose and tongue of birds ). Third pair of ganglion in the encephalic stem of birds concerns to olfactive nucleus, connected to hypophisis (2nd pair) and brain (4,5,6th pairs). Olfactive nerves emerge from them and connect with olfactive mucose. Birds have poor development of olfactive nucleus according to encephalic stem. As a result of that birds have low olfactive capability and so the use of aromatic pronutrients like eugenol has no sense in aviculture nutrition.
Thirteenth pair of ganglion in the encephalic stem of birds concerns to ambiguous nucleus which inerve taste nerves from the back third of tongue, gives secrete-motive inervation to salival glands and motive to stilopharingeus muscle. Birds have poor development of ambiguous nucleus and their taste nerves have short diameter.
Moreover, birds tongue has nearly none taste papiles (most are filiform) so they are not sensitive to acid, bitter and sweetness. Because of that birds have low taste capability and the use of aromatic flavoring pronutrients like anetol has low sense in aviculture nutrition. However, 1st and 2nd pairs of ganglion (eyes and hypophisis) are so developed in birds and connected each other.
That’s why photoperiod is very important in bird reproduction. This organic development gives birds high vision capability and they have great response to colours. This helps birds, in nature, to eat certain fruits and so they spread plant seeds and they get provided of nutrients and antirusts. Plants include essential oils into seeds and other parts to maintain their hygienic conditions. They are mixings of aromatic substances biosyntethized by plants that give specific flavor to flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, and have antifungusantibacteria effects, keep predator insects off and attract the ones which help pollination to happen. Essential oils contain between 60 and 100 constituents. If we reject the ones with olfactive and flavor effects and take care of aromatic phenols, we must emphatize the importance of cimenol.
In consequence, birds have a great visual capability and antifungus-antibacteria substances mixed into fruits and seeds have such importance in both birds and plants evolution and so they are of interest in aviculture.