Treatment for Bovine Papillomatosis
Bovine papillomatosis is a disease of viral origin
Bovine papillomatosis is a viral disease that causes epithelial injuries. It depends on predisposing factors, such as inadequate feeding (Insufficient mineral concentrations in feed).
The measures to fight bovine papillomatosis are as follows:
1.1 Improve feeding (vitamins, minerals and biotin) and farming environment.
1.2 Disinfection programs for tools and facilities, disinsection programs (ticks, flies, mosquitoes and horseflies) and personal hygiene programs for animal-handling workers.
1.3 Quarantine programs for new animal entrances and health assurance programs for seminal material, embryos and fertilized ovum.
There are no oral or parenteral treatments with proved efficacy. The efficacy of topic treatments based on salicylic acid and formaldehyde associated to proteolytic enzymes has been observed. Salicylic acid is an antiseptic and keratolytic chemical agent and formaldehyde is an antiseptic chemical agent. Proteolytic enzymes detach dead cells and allow the antiseptics to reach infected tissues. This ointments or baths can success in the 80% of body warts and in the 60% of breast warts.
Immune prevention of this disease is possible, but commercial vaccines are not available due to the quantity of causal viruses.
Bovine papillomatosis virus belongs to the Papovaviridae family, where six bovine papillomaviruses are duly identified: BPV type I, II, III, IV, V and VI. Pedunculated papilloma (BPV type II) and flat papilloma (BPV type III) are the most common ones, although up to 10 genotypes are known. These viruses enter across epithelial microinjuries, from direct contact or through contaminated material, evade the immune system by settling in non-accessible areas for the defensive cells so they have the chance to remind viable in the host.
For this reason, autovaccines are used instead of the commercial vaccines that are slightly specific for each virus. Autovaccines are made of material from the papilloma present in the farm, once it is crushed, filtrated and inactivated with formalin. Because of the way this vaccine is prepared, it is advisable to apply it subcutaneously with two revaccinations. The first one at the 21 days of age and the second one 6 months later.
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