Fish meal processing is obtained by extracting the water and fish oils. There are two ways to produce it, one is direct drying of fish and other fish previously subjected to boiling and then drying.
It is a good source of high quality protein and energy because it contains omega fatty acids, EPA and DHA, essential for the development of animals. Protein fish meal contains essential amino acids easily digestible. Fat improves the balance between omega 3 and omega 6, giving them the right proportion in the diet. The amount of energy it provides is far greater than any other protein. Minerals and vitamins in high doses are also present; phosphorus and B complex are examples.
Its main world exporter is Peru where the anchovy is the species of choice for production of flour. The main destinations are China, the European Union and about fifty countries. Production in Peru fell by 40% in 2010 under the influence of climate, which must be recovered this year, is expected to reach the volume of 2009 of 1.35 million tons.
Despite the decrease in production volume, the export value of fish meal from Peru increased by 13% last year to 1.619 million dollars, thanks to a rise in the price of raw material.
“Fish meal 64% of fish exports from Peru. The National Society of Fisheries-SNP-estimated that exports of Peruvian fishing industry in general to reach between 2,500 million and 2,600 million in 2011. The fishing category represents 7% of total exports of Peru “.*
The fish meal used in feed for pigs, poultry, beef, shrimp and fish farming, and the amount thereof in the diet will depend on the proportions of the other inputs that compose it. In the case of poultry and pigs, fish meal has become the essential ingredient to compensate for deficiencies in essential amino acids. However, it should pay special attention to the amount of flour in the diet of chickens, hens and pigs for meat or eggs could be fishy taste.
Another careful fishmeal means that can cause spontaneous combustion, so storage and transport require vigilance. It is recommended to provide ventilation and temperature control changes, and other precautions.
Fish meal, a source of many nutrients, is used in feed for poultry, pigs, cattle and sheep. It provides numerous advantages that make it indispensable in the rations. In birds, for example, you get increased productivity, rapid growth influences and good feed conversion, stimulates the immune system, saving costs to the producer. In the case of pigs, improves fertility and disease resistance. Similarly in ruminants, promotes fertility, increases milk production, milk fat reduces by the amount of fish meal in the ration. In short it is unquestionable the use of this important input in animal nutrition and the benefits obtained.
On the other hand, in regard to the production itself, not everything is rosy in the topic Fish Meal, although we hold the title of largest producer and exporter of this product and that the industry generates employment , Peru suffer some consequences as a result of the indiscriminate exploitation of the anchovy.
At home the fish meal is prepared with the kind anchovy (Engraulis ringens), which is captured in industrial quantities by large vessels (called shopkeeper), medium and small, that does not allow time for playback. Only closed seasons instituted by the State, is put aside for short time fishing for this species. This situation has led to an overuse of the anchovy and the proliferation of companies producing fishmeal, whose staff, of course, becomes unemployed on and off.
Besides being seriously affecting the anchovy population, it also negatively affects other larger species that feed on it, for example, pelicans, Humboldt penguins, fur seals, dolphins, etc. that failure to migrate to find food elsewhere or die. The observation of these species is of influx of tourists to our shores, so that the industry without chimneys is impaired.
On the other hand, the anchovy is not only food for the species mentioned above, but for others who are consumed by people, such as mackerel, or tuna, among others.
Since ancient times, the inhabitants of the Peruvian coast are engaged in fishing using traditional, subsistence, through the wealth of the sea. This activity has been reflected in ceramics, textiles, bone implements, stone and wood, pre-Inca times. However, today’s fishermen must venture many miles at sea and witness the decline in fish populations due to over exploitation of which have been subjected.
Later, our country highlighted by the guano, valuable natural fertilizer that is now rundown because guanay, the boobies, pelicans, and birds that produced it, feed on anchovy, which is disappearing from their habitats.
Another drawback on the coast of Peru is the pollution that the factories produce fishmeal and canning, which discharge waste materials directly into the sea, including organic and chemical products, without any treatment. Also, the output characteristic odor pervades the atmosphere of several coastal cities.
We therefore need a policy that state the sound management of the species if we do not want to lose the foreign currency export, stop feeding the animals with the valuable input of fish meal and other industries do not want collateral damage. Only the ban is not enough for the sustainability of the input, care must be taken that the size of fish caught is optimal to preserve developing organisms, regulating the fate of fish and other species for human consumption by the anchovies fall in networks. It is also necessary to treat waste from the fishmeal to counter environmental pollution of sea and air.
Some time ago has been encouraging the human consumption of fresh and canned anchovies in various preparations, the public has grown accustomed to its use for its pleasant flavor and omega fatty acids. This would be one way to preserve the species, does not need a process such as fish meal and are not required for this industry, the large amounts currently drawn to make flour. The cuisine generates permanent employment for many Peruvians.