Digestive enzymes functions in shrimp farms
The feed takes up to 40% of the cost of shrimp production. Therefore, soybeans and cereals are use in the feed formulation. To incorporate the proteins and other nutrients from the feed, shrimps need enzymes. All these actions permit to reduce feed productions costs and to obtain major profits...
Shrimp culture has extended to many countries in Latin America, like Ecuador, Mexico and Honduras. Their main production is exported to China, USA and Europe, where they also cultivate shrimps. The principal advantage about shrimp culture is that it can reach the final weight at 3 months old. This implies that in one year 3 commercial cycles could be completed.
The shrimp is an omnivorous specie, which in its natural habitat, they feed of decomposing plant matter, algae, microscopic crustaceans, and the remains of fish and animals. Shrimp are farmed in ponds for an intensive production. The shrimp feed is specific formulated to boost the shrimp productivity. The feed takes up to 40% of the cost of shrimp production. Therefore, soybeans and cereals are use in the feed formulation. To incorporate the proteins and other nutrients from the feed, shrimps need enzymes. All these actions permit to reduce feed productions costs and to obtain major profits.
The incorporation of exogenous enzymes is needed when vegetable proteins are added to the feed formulation. Enzymes are biological molecules that are activated by the gastrointestinal low pH. They can cut down the bonds of larger molecules. Proteins are complex structures formed by peptides and amino acids. Amino acids which are the minimum expression of proteins, are necessary for the normal functioning of the animals´ body. These nutrients are absorbed in the intestine, and they are used for physiological processes. Vegetable proteins contain antinutritional factors which endogenous enzymes can´t digest. To make this proteins bioavailable, exogenous enzymes are added. Proteases enzymes act by releasing peptides and amino acids for later absorption. Protein requirements vary from 25 to 30% in shrimp feed.
Something similar happens with starch. Starch is the main resource for energy that cereals can provide in the shrimp feed. The amylase enzyme is incorporated to generate the bioavailability of the starch.
Also, xylanase and cellulase enzymes are important. Hemicellulose and cellulose are vegetable carbohydrate sources that must be processed and digested by exogenous enzymes. Thus, the shrimp can use these carbohydrates for their physiological processes.
It is important to know the variation of the nutritional requirements in the different shrimp stages: post larvae, juveniles and adults. The molting process happens in the three stages. More frequently when they are young. The shrimp is covered by an exoskeleton that provides defence against other microorganisms and fish. Molting is a physiological process of the shrimp growth: the exoskeleton, which is rigid, is discarded and a new one is synthesized, softer at first, but larger. Molting includes 3 phases: pre-molting, molting, and post-molting. its duration is about 3 days. During this period the shrimp almost doesn’t consume food, since in its natural habitat, the shrimp hides so as not to be attacked by other fish. Being aware of when shrimp enter the molting process will reduce economic losses associated with wasted feed.
Alquerzim Shrimps is an enzyme product adapted to the different production stages and diet formulations. It has been developed by Biovet S.A. Improves digestibility and nutritional utilization. It is administered with food at a dose of 0.5 Kg/tn. Alquerzim Shrimps can be formulated according to the specific requirements of nutritionists.