Livestock Diagnosic 2018 in Sonora (Mexico)
Article written by Fernando R. Feuchter A, of the Regional University Center of the Northwest (Cd. Obregón Sonora, México)
The updated diagnosis allows to analyze the progress made in the productive sector and to see the profile of new technologies that are necessary for the global competitiveness of the livestock activity. It does not include the fishing sector, nor does it conclude the signing of the FTA (Free Trade Agreement) 2018.
The report of the LXXX Assembly of the Local Livestock Association of the Valley of Yaqui (AGLVY, for its acronym in Spanish -Asociación Ganadera Local del Valle del Yaqui-), informs of the progress made during the 2014-2018 management period through a vision looking at the forest from afar, achieving concrete benefits for the guild as the Municipal TIF trail of Cajeme; the livestock auctions of the Livestock Regional Union of Sonora; construction of coripe of jaripeo; liaison with the ITSON Veterinary School for equipment of oocyte laboratories and insemination and diagnosis of diseases (Tick, Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, viral) improvements to the AGLVY building; maintenance of the facilities of the food plant and storage pens; Application of the SINIIGA line; rinderpest control vehicle and other specified activities.
Now the responsability falls on the new elected president who presents a vision looking at the forest from within, which means managing projects to extend to each farmer to improve the production of ranches or production units.
At the assembly, was supported purchase of stallions, production of mules and high-caliber hinnies, creation of Environmental Management Units (UMA, for its initials in Spanish) of wild flora and fauna, hunting activities with introduced species, drilling of wells, driving lines of water, dam, rural roads, temporary grasslands establishing native forages such as “banderita grass” and desirable bushes, maintenance of buffel grass meadows, manage the use of the soil aerator of the Livestock Regional Union of Sonora (UGRS, for its acronym in Spanish), irrigated meadows of green continuous throughout the year, fences, corrals, trap, scale, fans, feeders, drinking troughs, feed hoppers and management equipment, preparation of federal projects, technical assistance, training, education, marketing and other improvements to the ranch.
It is understood that these managements have a sustainable and practical approach, without affecting overgrazing (increasing breeding stock) the rate of the range coefficient that is fixed, because it represents a frequency of wild species and should not be altered during the years for 3-5 vegetative sites of each pasture. This depends on the orientation to the sunrise, its proximity to the hydrological basin (stream), location of shoal, hillside, hillside, hill and plane; as well as its condition in the existence of forage as excellent, good, regular and bad.
Respect the animal load that is variable, because it can be quantified in kilos of daily forage available for access to animal consumption. Depending on rainfall, soil fertility and season of the year. All a management of practices of the pasture and animals that allow to be efficient in the use of natural resources, to avoid extraordinary increases in the costs of maintenance of the herd (breeding stock) and to have economically a profitable company, beyond being an activity considered only as a way of life.
The AGLVY has 1700 registered members. They are cattle ranchers of Cajeme, but with productive settlements in Álamos, Benito Juárez, Empalme, Etchojoa, Guaymas, Huatabampo, Navojoa, Ónavas, Quiriego, Rosario, Suaqui Grande and Yécora. The assembly was attended by many influenced known faces from 25 years ago, when there was the Southern Livestock Credit Association of Sonora. There is a presence of new producers (without boots and hat) that make a different and more conscious way of making decisions, women farmers that have always been, but today with more direction, participation and commitment.
Even when a stallion is still chosen for its physical conformation and physiological appearance, without performing selection tests for growth performance and weight gain, heritability and progeny by origin of the parents. So, we still make decisions with practices used in 1950. Universities can support these tests in groups, it’s nothing special.
This local scheme can be replicated with particular options in the 86 Regional General Local Cattle Associations that are distributed in the 72 municipalities of the state of Sonora.
The Regional Livestock Union of Sonora (UGRS), headquartered in Hermosillo, also has the affiliation of 4 specialized associations of sheep-goat producers and 4 associations of milk producers, which have affiliated to the ILIS pasteurization factory from Hermosillo. There are 75 dairy farms to produce half a million liters a day, which are delivered to 4 pasteurizers, yet Sonora is not self-sufficient. There is a decadent executive board (PATROCIPES) for an almost forgotten livestock research center of the State of Sonora (CIPES), which needs new and reinforced work and research programs, experimental tests are needed so that the producer do not run the risk time and resources in processes that they correspond to an agricultural research center.
There is an alliance with the federal National Commission of Arid Zones (CONAZA) to apply improvements to the grazing lands with curves of level, establishment, maintenance and renewal of pastures of “zacate” buffel, in compacted soils step of harrow and aerator, construction and reinforcement of dams, construction and equipment of wells with solar energy, pumping kite, fences of exclusion, reforestation of desirable native species, acquisition of seeds of introduced perennial species for the establishment of the continuous green meadow all year round. This affiliation allows to adapt to the federal support schemes and “to land” the financial resources in the production units.
The Association of Small Cattle Ranchers of Sonora SPR of RI and other Cattle Production Associations not affiliated to the UGRS. There has been the Alfalfa Producer Association (Asociación de Alfalferos de Sonora), which allowed to regulate the price of forage bales. There are also social groups that involve equine breeding animals such as “Charros”, Equestrian, Riding, “Parejeras” races, Stables, horse dancers, Horseback riding, Lazo groups, combat roosters, Canopy grazing, others. Of fighting bulls, in Sonora there is a Law that prohibits not their breeding, but bullfighting.
Irrigated agricultural valleys of Sonora, in 720,000 ha of irrigation, produce one million tons benefits, that require packing machinery for their collection. There are important inputs of low value to solve the period of recurrent summer in the State. These straws are mostly harvested by supplier not from Sonora. It is an alternative solution and very useful one against the burning of sheaf.
The Regional Livestock Farming Union of Sonora, based in Cd. Obregón, has Associations in Cajeme, Hermosillo, Navojoa and Huatabampo, is consisting of 90 companies that manage 350 pig farms, which house 155,000 bellies, for a production inventory of 2.5 million pigs and 1 million are slaughtered. There is a consumption of 800,000 tons of grains and 150 tons of protein pastes. 9 Federal Inspection Type (TIF) traces are used for slaughter. There is a fluctuating export of 80,000 tons worth 300 million dollars; they would do well to take note if they signed the Free Trade Agreement with the European Union (with the Brexit) with the approach to the Spanish, German, Belgian and Danish markets, which have advanced environmental, animal welfare, national training and they die to export surpluses. In any case, Sonora can compete globally by introducing its quality and sanitary cuts to the USA, Europe, Japan, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, since it has been recognized for its quality and health since 1974. (A Secretary of Trump, proposed to export to the Muslim market, because the market was not competitive and “they ran it”).
We must recognize that in general a culture of individualism and lack of organization for work are present and well established which impede the execution of economies of scale and added value. There are always deserters when a proposal progresses. (1*)
There are 100 pig farms and 20 dairy farms that have anaerobic digestion lagoons for the production of methane gas, which require better efficiency designs in gas production and electric power generation.
The Union of Poultry Associations of Sonora AC, with headquarters in Guaymas, affiliates the Associations of aviculturists of Hermosillo, Guaymas, Cajeme, and Navojoa with 158 farms, having an inventory of 13 million birds, with exemplary achievements in egg production with 24 thousand boxes per day, representing 132 thousand tons of eggs, breeder for breeding, chicken reproduction, incubators management. They are large grain importers as well as of birds. They have 2 TIF traces in Hermosillo for chickens and in Cd. Obregón for waste hens with a capacity of 7 million birds.
They face strong competition from the USA when they import eggs, chicken, turkey and chicken meat. There is a strong monitoring that follows the Salmonella, Influenza, Newcastle, Marek, Coccidiosis, and Bronchitis. It is characterized because entrepreneurs are capitalized, but their companies need to be consolidated so that the number of producers does not decrease and their organizational experience is lost.
These sectors of birds and pigs, although advanced in technology and great advances in health (there are 2 private laboratories for the diagnosis of exotic diseases) with the Animal Inspection Committee (CIPES), the pig farmers and poultry farmers lack a center for education and personnel trainings. There is the organization of an annual congress by the Association of Professionals in Pigmeat of Cajeme and another by the Association of Pathologists and Poultry Zootechnist from Northwest (APyZAN, as its initials in Spanish), to motivate the professional association, but this is not enough. There are 12 TIF trails and they mostly have rooms for cutting.
The Union of Local Livestock Associations of Sonora A.C., also have needs for research, health and updating of producers and equipment supports as well as possibilities to transform the product with added value through strategic projects. There are 35,000 beehives, 85% in 5 municipalities Hermosillo, Cajeme, Navojoa, Ures, Moctezuma, the rest disseminated in the State.
The Association of Hunting Organizations of the state of Sonora AC (AOCIES) affiliated to the National Association of Diversified Ranchers (ANAGADI) in Sonora have more than 1.500 ranches registered as Environmental Management Units, which attract hunting tourism for an economic income of 30 million of annual dollars.
Noting the national statistics presented during the Agro Forum on March 6, 2018, to understand the food sector. The present and future of the livestock sector, (2*), with sources from the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA, for its initials in Spanish). “Invest in precision technology for production, technological innovation, exponential technologies (automation, drones, robotics, digital DNA sequence to reduce the variation of farm animals, bioenergy), mass data control, synthetic biology, genome editing, research, improve the capacity of academics, education in biotechnology, training, technical assistance, extension, knowledge transfer, advise with statistical information or use of digital data to the producer, new agricultural careers that make use of mathematics, measurement of socio-economic impacts and applied interpretation of electronic information is what the agricultural future needs”. Where can we start?
To cover the demand for healthy food for the world’s population in the year 2050, the Organization of the United Nations for Agriculture and Food (FAO) foresees that it is necessary to increase food production by 60%. For this, policies that give certainty in the long term must be established. The big transnationals of agrochemicals are merging to divide and compete in a single world agricultural market. a) Bayer-Monsanto-Pairwise-Agricultural microbes, b) Corteva-Dow-Dupont, c) Syngenta-Chem-Sinochem and d) BASF grow with the purchases of non-monopolistic companies.
Mexico is an emerging country because it still does not transform many of its raw material production and uses a little its scientific knowledge. The food production sector requires establishing a sustainable awareness from the mental “roots” of students, producers, professionals and consumers. Progress has been made in health, nutrition and marketing.
World statistics for Mexico: With an area of 1.96 million km2, it is the 14th largest country. It is the 12th producer of food, ranks 3rd in agricultural production in Latin America. It is considered the 7th world producer of animal protein. It has 12 Free Trade Agreements (FTA) that include 49 countries. More group and bilateral agreements are being negotiated, almost agreed upon for signature.
Mexico has trade agreement with 116 countries, out of a total of 320 in the world. The total annual value of agri-food exports is 26,714 million dollars (MDD). In 2017 it was 32,500 MDD. So, it is the 1st global exporter of avocado, tomato, chilli, pepper, cucumber. It is the 4th exporter of pecans and 5th country onion. An average of 35,000 tons of honey is exported annually for a value of 94 million dollars.
Mexico spends annually 423,000 million dollars to import several cereals and corn (16.5 million tons of USA, Argentina and Brazil, 30% of the needs are imported), rice imports 85% of consumption, beans, soy imports 95% of the market that are 5 million TN, sorghum 2.5 million, wheat 3.9 million, meat (pork, just under 1 million tons with a value of 1.4 billion dollars), milk powder, chicken paste, soybean paste and others, which causes the abandonment of productive land, urban marginalization and extreme poverty.
In Sonora, conservation of agriculture is being developed in 6,500 hectares, seeking global competitiveness and profitability. The World Economic Forum (WEF) places Mexico in 51st place among 137 economies. There are things that fail. (3 *) Perspectives of the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) indicate a global deceleration in demand and abundant increases in basic production (milk, meat, cereals, beans), so low prices are expected as never before. Sugar and oilseeds can rise in international price. (4*).
The NATIONAL SAGARPA (Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fishing and Food) spends a variable budget of 60 to 90,000 million pesos annually. In 2016, it allocated 1,513 million pesos to equip Mexican producers, 75% of the national municipalities depend on the spillage of these federal supports for rural areas. In more than a half of the national territory, livestock activities are carried out, equivalent to 109.9 million hectares. It has 22 million hectares open to cultivation and seeks to expand the agricultural frontier to 26.9 million hectares. New openings in sight of SEMARNAT (Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources) and the closed border of groundwater.
90% of farmers have less than 5 hectares. There are 5.3 million Mexicans working in agriculture, of which 10.3% are women. 50% of farmers do not have formal education. 6.4 million tons of meat is produced annually. Including chicken, turkey (1 million birds), there are 1.9 million tons produced to occupy the 6th place in the world, pork at national level produce 1.4 million tons per year and the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) recognizes free of Classical swine fever (cholera) as of May 31st, 2015, goat, sheep, rabbit, ostrich, chicken, quail and others.
Poultry farming continues to rise with 3 million tons of chicken from 200 million chickens, almost a half of the meat, being the 5th world producer of chicken and with 100 million laying birds (chickens) producing 2.7 million tons of eggs, being the 4th world producer of egg. The aviculture is preparing to compete in the international market with eggs and chicken breasts, integrating to the industry vertically and horizontally. 1.2 million head of cattle are exported to the USA and meat for 240 000 tons to different countries. (5*). 9,040 hectares of protected agriculture have been installed in greenhouses and shade mesh has yet to grow.
FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION
With the signing of the Free Trade Agreement with the European Union (TLCUEM, for its initials in Spanish-Tratado de Libre Comercio con la Unión Europea) a large unexplored market to export beef and horse meat is expanded. In Sonora at the beginning of the 21st century, there were ewes and slaughterhouses that had been approved by the Ministry of Health and Assistance. Once again, the opportunity to import 130,000 waste horses from the racecourses, rodeos and fields is opened, to fatten them here, since in the USA they are considered pets and legally they cannot be killed in meat traces (dog, canned).
An insecure market, since it depends on legislative changes. It could be opportunity for the breeding of big donkeys of great height of “Andalusian of Extremadura” race. It is true that the European, New Zealand and Australian cheeses will enter easily, oust the 58 national types of cheese registered in the National Chamber of the Milk Industry (CANILEC) (* 6)
ASERCA (Agency for Marketing Services and Development of Agricultural Markets) announces the opening of export of Halal and Kosher meat to the Arab market with companies such as Gusi and SuKarne. Let’s see if they invite. To export boneless meat to the US, a fee of 10% of the value is paid. The world market demands the production of milk, which does not cause allergy to lactose or inflammation by casein.
Sonora can quickly start a state program for genotyping cows with the A2A2 gene and regulate only the use of semen from sires with A2A2 gene, to achieve a healthier differentiated state product with high export potential. To say so, natural milk from the past, as it was before. (* 7) It is the milk of the future, without stomach problems and nourishing childhood with vitamins and minerals and reducing osteoporosis, in adults of the third age, without medication. Mexico has a consumption of 62 kilos per capita per year.
If that were not enough, the idea of building a refinery to process cow’s urine for remedies, broad-spectrum antibiotics, deworming and used to clean floors or discolor hair (“Hi, man, I know where you got your colourrrr!, Cantinflas would say). Named in India GOMUTRA, which contains auric hydroxide (ORO), at a higher price than milk and with very few contraindications or discomforts. (* 8)
I will tell you that gold is an essential mineral element, whose biological results have been hidden, because governments fear being forced to offer a supplement to improve the health of the population. To say so, urine, but above all be open to unknown possibilities. A pig farm with vitro floor, refrigeration, heating, all impeccable, of only 20 pigs in fattening. Sale of cartilage for heart implants at $ 20,000 dollars each. A rancher with 1 ha and 4 cows. Sale of embryos for implantation of $ 5,000 dollars each inseminated. Animals and bacteria cloned to produce enzymes and transplant organs for humans.
In the Units of Environmental Management do not discard from the menu the consumption of frog legs, iguanas, partridge, gambell quail (cholis), pheasant, and land turtle. Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) reared in farms in Sinaloa or Tamaulipas, will the mariculture of loggerhead, totuaba occur? The UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico) recommends the entomophagy of 1900 edible insects (crickets, weevils, larvae, maguey worms, earthworms, grasshoppers, “escamoles”, “chicatanas”, “jumiles”, bees, flies, soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), beetles and snails (heliculture) in a controlled greenhouse (*9), are no longer collected, but produced on a large scale in commercial farms in Mexico, Canada and the USA. Modernity is out of our hands. (* 10)
It is necessary to train management methodologies and agricultural work, which have been less conventional in the academic curriculum such as precision farming, poly farm, sustainable, agroforestry, silvopasture, holism, permaculture, organic, minimum tillage, biotechnology, systems administration electronics in the palm of the hand, use of drones, beneficial insects for fly control of stables and other vectors, biological control, three-story ranch, inoculants, soil improvers, conservation and harvest of rain, the door is still open for field production and agro-industry.
Ldo. Fernando R. Feuchter
Regional Center of University of Noroeste Colima # 163 north Cd. Obregón Sonora, México