Animal Health and Nutrition
For a long time scientists, universities and researchers were interested in knowing the origin of animal diseases and dedicated to look for the origin of the microbial agents that caused these pathologies, for that reason it was necessary to establish methods of identification microbiological, more specific and sensitive diagnoses, how to control them, such as antibiotics to improve health and productivity in different species.
Then there appear words such as epidemic, pandemic, contagious infectious disease, parasitic diseases related to the form of dissemination and there are strategies necessary to control them in a way that they do not affect health conditions between countries, with real-time diagnoses and other techniques using genetic material. In the livestock industry we introduce concepts such as: production parameters, birth weight, weaning, mortality rate, conversion index, laboratory serological tests, to know the health status of our animals.
All these advances achieved to offer better health in the animals, using the microbiological treatment, controls, diagnostics, and adequate infrastructures, improve the production parameters, making a profitable activity in the livestock activity, but then arises the concept of animal welfare and environment.
On the other hand, nutritionists are interested in knowing the nutritional needs of animals so that they are healthy and able to produce, thus arise concepts of needs of protein, energy, fat, vitamins, minerals, additives, premixes, prebiotics, growth promoters, mycotoxin binders, pronutrients, etc.
Then there is a worldwide concern for the food consumed in the human population, which are not contaminated with residues appearing concepts such as food safety, putting more pressure on the livestock industry to offer this type of food and all the food that is given to animals must be free of contaminants, so that in the production chain the quality standards are maintained and that they are guarantees, in the final product for consumers.
All these actions, in order to have healthy animals free of disease and to have food without contaminants so that they are healthy, strong and can produce is an inseparable binomial, because with the emergence of new lines of animals and productive races is needed a quality food, to nourish them in a way that expresses that intrinsic genetic potential in proteins for the consumption of the human being, that is why health and food are both dependent on each other, the achievements achieved by both sanitary and nutritional entities to improve all parameters to be effective in breeding animals, pretending to think or believing that one is not more important than the other, blaming each other on the problems of the livestock industry is a serious mistake as it will be impossible to achieve economic and production efficiently. Usually when the technician observes the problems in the farm and tries to improve them, the damage is done and it will be impossible to reach the production indexes. Therefore, it is necessary that producers, such as industries, create the balance between the two to achieve the benefits in livestock activity and respecting their environment. Environment is aggressive for them, but to adapt to their environment it is necessary to have well-developed immunological systems capable of actively responding to external microbial agents.