Quarterly Pathology (IV): Central America and The Caribbean
From the beginning of the rain period, several digestive and respiratory diseases have been notably increased.
1.Digestive mycosis in beak and crop
In numerous occasions they are confused with mycotixosis by T-2 so it is very important the clinical and analytic differentiation. Mycosis, in this alkaline zone of the digestive system, are produced by yeast-shape fungi of the gender Candida, being Candida albicans the most frequent one, and they are present in tongue and crop through ulcers. They do not exist other digestive injuries except in very serious cases at rectus intestine level.
On the contrary, injuries by trichothecenes can appear in beak and tongue, but it is accompanied by erosion in ventricle of the gizzard (real stomach of the birds) and irritation of the mucosa of the duodenal juice.
In high temperature periods (caloric stress), periods of high production (productive stress) and for the continuous use of antibiotics (control of infectious toxic hepatoenteritis), there is an increase of pathogenicity of Candida that exists in this anatomic zone as saprophyte (see picture #1).
2.Digestive mucosa in gizzard
Necropsies demonstrate the presence of ulcerations in the cornea layer of the gizzard. These ulcerations, produced by fungi of gender Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium present a lower white part between the yellow cornea layer and the muscular layer of the gizzard. Treatments based on organic acids and cimenol in drinking water are efficient but must be accompanied by the use of antifungal in feed in order to prevent later reinfections (see pictures #3, 4,5,6).
3.Infections in high respiratory ways
They have been diagnosed Haemophillus, Bordetella and other haemolytics in petechias of infra orbital sinuses and beginning of trachea. These infections are producers of dermatoxins that affect the integrity of external and internal epithelium of birds. Erythromycin, doxycycline and ampicillin are treatments of election, accompanied by biosecurity measures.
4.Infections in lower respiratory ways
The warm climatology and high humidity have caused a change in the bacterial flora. It has been alternated the chronic respiratory disease with septicemic colibacillosis. The chronic respiratory disease acts exclusively in respiratory processes while the septicemic colibacillosis combines respiratory symptoms with the presence of petechias in the fat of thigh (see picture #7). and fat of the cardiac base (see picture #2).