Protocol for requesting diagnostic information by image analysis of necropsies
Authors: Noemí Lorenzo Vidaña, Francisco. R. Giral Arnal
The collection of data and information (written or images) is vital for a correct diagnosis, and the subsequent indications to solve the problems occurred in the farms. The following protocol details the key points for obtaining the necessary information:
1. Collect a medical history of the installation that presents the problem.
1.1 Conduct a questionnaire to the producer on following issues:
- Productive Parameters
- Food consumption
- % current mortality
- Gain weight of birds
- % Egg production (in layers)
- Water consumption
- Environmental temperature
- Recent drug administration
- Use of toxic products (disinfectants, anti-pest products …)
- General condition of animals (depressed, prostrate, weak animals, etc.)
1.2 Personal estimation of the producer, what do the producer and the employees think about the situation observed?
1.3 Take into account that the use of our products does not guarantee its correct administration and following the parameters and dosage recommended by Biovet. You need to make sure the administration applied on the farm.
1.4 Make an analysis of the information collected and generate a presumptive diagnosis.
1.5 Once the presumptive diagnosis has been decided, proceed to do necropsies.
2. Perform necropsies under the following parameters:
1.1 Minimum choice between 3 and 10 live animals between which there must be 75% animals with symptoms or problems that can be seen with the eye and 25% healthy or visibly healthy.
1.2 The use of mortality is possible in the meantime being notified when submitting the photos and always using the most recent mortality that can be obtained. Also take into account that due to the natural process of decomposition there are certain lesions that are very difficult to diagnose or that can lead to a misdiagnosis (abnormal colors, atypical presence of gas), so necropsies of dead animals must be done as soon as possible to minimize diagnostic errors. Finally, for a correct diagnosis of dead animals, it should always be accompanied by information obtained from several slaughtered animals that have not presented any pathology, in order to obtain a complete overview of the condition of the animals in a batch.
1.3 Once defined a presumptive diagnosis should start a necropsy, firstly target organs that are suspected to produce the pathology. For example, if presumed that exists a fungi, the necropsy should be targeted to the following organs:
Another example: if you suspect Salmonella
- Small intestine
Another example: if you suspect Viral disease
- Peyer's plate
- Tonsilas cecales
- bursa of Fabricius
- And white organs depending on the virus.
1.4 Make as many photographs as possible with natural light and as close as possible, always striving for the sharpness necessary to be able to observe in detail the organs.
1.5 Send the photographs by e-mail accompanied by a brief report of the anamnesis and the problems present on the farm.
1.6 If there is no symptomatology associated with the presumptive diagnosis, it is necessary to evaluate the rest of organs in an exhaustive way with the objective of always obtaining three points of coincidence with symptoms related to a pathology.
1.7 Once the necropsy procedure is completed, evaluate what is found versus the presumptive diagnosis and the history to make a diagnosis.
3. Diagnosis: the final diagnosis has to start from the coincidence between the symptoms and signs observed in the facility and the findings obtained during the necropsy.
1.1 In order to diagnosis as accurate as possible, there must be a minimum of three diagnostic elements that coincide with the pathology, which requires the detailed information collected by the person requesting the diagnosis.
1.2 The contribution of photographic material in quantity and a good quality is fundamental for the diagnosis.
1.3 Due to the association between signs and symptoms and necropsy findings may not always be conclusive for the diagnosis, a good history is essential to obtain good results. The data collected in the anamnesis will allow to guide and clarify the diagnosis in case of not having a clear one.