Preservatives vs. Growth Promoters
The concept of preservative, of food, was born at the beginning of the 20th century and was defined as any substance which, incorporated into food, maintains its physicochemical and microbiological characteristics...
(1) The concept of preservative, of food, was born at the beginning of the 20th century and was defined as any substance which, incorporated into food, maintains its physicochemical and microbiological characteristics.
(2) Due to the multifunctionality of the group, later, the antioxidants were separated and only the antimicrobials remained under the name of preservatives, including antibacterials and antifungals.
(3) For years, numerous molecules belonging to the most different groups were used: nystatin, malachite green, methylene blue, copper sulfate, acetic acid, lactic acid….
(4) The entry into force of the selection of molecules, depending on their residue production, in food for human consumption, caused a drastic reduction of the available molecules and research focused mainly on acetic acid, lactic acid and other weak organic acids.
(5) Biovet’s research on the mechanism of action of organic acids revealed 3 relevant aspects:
5.1 organic acids act in a dissociated form according to the equation: ch³-ch³-ch³-cooh >>> ch³-ch³-ch³-co (-) + oh (+)
5.2 The action of the dissociated active form is temporary, fungistatic and bacteriostatic
5.3 When there are organic acids with chains of 1 to 6 carbons, there are 6 active fractions that shown different spectra of activity. thus, there are acids that showed to be more active against g- germs, others more active against g+ and fungi and the associations, among them, of general use
(6) The research opened new objectives: “the use of preservatives as an alternative to growth promoters’ antibiotics.”
(7) Biovet presented its research in the scientific program of the XXVII WPSA SYMPOSIUM held during the EXPOAVIGA 1989 fair, under the title “raw materials and feed preservatives: practical selection criteria and effects of its application in poultry feed” concluding that a synergic association of organic acids, of different lengths of chain, allows to replace growth promoter antibiotics with an efficiency improvement of 3% and without residue. the new concept of preservative expands its use as an antimicrobial as well as a growth promoter.
(8) The fungistatic/bacteriostatic mechanism constitutes an impediment, so that research has continued in the search of fungicidal/bactericidal molecules, that can perform the double role, antimicrobial and replacement of growth promoting antibiotics.
(9) The observation of nature has allowed the identification of botanical molecules in plants, extracts and aqueous solutions with the desired effect so that they can act as preservatives, fungicides and bactericides, for raw materials and feed, and that can be used as a replacement of growth promoters antibiotics, both against g-germs, others more suitable to g+ and fungi and associations between them for general use.
(10) These investigations have been carried out in collaboration between the Universities (Polytechnical University of Valencia, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Universidad Científica del Sur, Virginia, North Carolina, Fujian) & Biovet S.A.