Intestinal conditioner and optimizer pronutrients as treatment against necrotic enteritis in turkeys
Intestinal conditioner pronutrients enhance the enterocytes regeneration and indeed improve intestinal membrane integrity.
Necrotic enteritis is an acute infection caused by an overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens characterized by a severe intestinal necrosis. It is one of the main diseases in poultry industry that causes huge economical losses worldwide.
Clostridium perfringens is a gram positive strict anaerobic bacterium that produces the toxins responsible for the disease. Although, it is part of the intestinal flora, because of several predisposal factors, such as the type of feeding, stressful factors and concomitant diseases like coccidiosis, it is able to cause disease.
Unlike other birds, in turkeys, the toxins generated by Clostridium perfringens mainly affect the duodenum, where they cause deeper necrotic injuries, destroying completely the intestinal villi. Usually, the intestinal mucosa is slimed down and covered by a yellowish diphtherial membrane (“turkeys towel”).
Pronutrients are active molecules of botanical origin that stimulate the animal physiology. Intestinal conditioner pronutrients enhance the enterocytes regeneration and indeed improve intestinal membrane integrity. Intestinal optimizer pronutrients boost gut local immunity.
Evaluate the efficacy of intestinal conditioner and intestinal optimizer pronutrients as treatment for necrotic enteritis in turkeys.
- Material and methods
A total of 5078 eleven-month-old turkeys were used. Before treatment the presence of necrotic enteritis was verified by checking the clinical symptomatology:
- External symptoms
Lethargy, dehydration, prostration and death were observed, as well as the presence of hemorrhagic stool.
- Internal symptoms
Internally, hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis was observed, with a greater incidence in the duodenum and the large intestine, with defoliation of the intestinal epithelium. At the same time, a yellowish diphtherial membrane was observed in the gut surface (“turkeys towel”).
Gut: acute hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis and typhlocolitis were observed, characterized by the presence of fibrine, erythrocytes and inflammatory cells, with bacterial colonies (short bacilli and coccobacilli) in the intestinal crypts and lumen.
Liver: histiocitic necrotic hepatitis was observed with generalized congestive changes.
The described symptomatology was compatible with necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens.
Intestinal conditioner and optimizer pronutrients were administrated in water at a dose of 1 ml/L for 5 consecutive days, in the 11th week of breeding.
A progressive increase in mortality from the 7th day of breeding was observed, with a maximum of 69 dead turkey in the 10th week. Intestinal conditioner and optimizer pronutrients were administrated in the 11th week of breeding and a significant decrease of mortality was observed. Mortality decreased from 0.44% to 0.02% after the administration of the treatment.
After 5 days of treatment, animals were necropsied to evaluate that the intestinal integrity was restored.
At the same time, stool consistency was improved, from diarrheal to shapely stools after the treatment, as well as the general status of animals.
The use of intestinal conditioner and optimizers pronutrients reduced mortality during a necrotic enteritis outbreak, improving intestinal integrity, stool consistency and the general status of animals.
This was possible because intestinal conditioner and optimizer pronutrients enhanced the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa and increased the resistance to infections.
Intestinal conditioner and optimizer pronutrients are marketed under the name Alquernat Coneb, from Biovet S.A.