Differential diagnosis in oral plaque
The presence of oral plaques in the tongue or in the palate of birds has traditionally been attributed to the presence of mycotoxins of the sesquiterpene group, there are other causes that must be taken into account to establish a differential diagnosis:
(1) Extended antibiotic treatments, through drinking water or feed, reduce bacterial flora and allow Candida albicans to appear as saprophyte in the epithelium of the tongue. This lesion must be accompanied by lesions in the fauces.
(2) Use of formaldehyde in foods such as salmonicide may cause contact burns especially at the tip of the tongue if the dose is higher than recommended or if it has not been mixed evenly. In these cases it is possible to find burns at the entrance of the gizzard due to an exothermic reaction between formaldehyde and digestive hydrochloric acid.
(3) If it is really due to the presence of mycotoxins sesquiterpernos, the oral lesion should be accompanied by lesions due to chemical burns in the cornea layer of the gizzard and in the mucosa of the duodenum.