Clostridiosis of gizzard
The presence of spores of Clostridium in the food and litter is permanent since they are resistant to heat treatment lower than 120ºC. Consequently colonization of the digestive system of birds is also permanent. This does not mean that clostridia occur, besides the presence of spores of Clostridium, are needed other factors such as the presence of undigested protein or accumulation of the food in "dead spots" of gastrointestinal transit. The traffic between glandular and mechanical stomachs of birds is one of these "dead spots" in which undigested food can accumulate thereby facilitating fermentation by Clostridium spores. Consequently ulcers are observed in this area of transit as shown in the photograph.