Plant cells dependence. Dissemination 66th.
It is documented that some animal species have disappeared or are threatened with extinction when, as a result of geological change, it has reduced or eliminated it source of plant food.
If we look at trophic pyramid we can see that there are very few predators (carnivores) of other animals and that the majority of animals feed plant products (herbivores, frugivores …)
In fact the biggest productions of animal protein in nature consist of the production of krill (crustaceans) from diatoms (unicellular algae, colonies and filaments), the production of anchovy (Engraulis ringers) from marine plankton, or meat herbivore (ruminants, termites, aphids and caterpillars of Lepidoptera) from grasses.
All organic compounds consist of carbon and hydrogen, and often may contain oxygen and nitrogen and sulfur and phosphorus less frequently. The formation of all natural products in higher plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria has its origin residing in photosynthesis in chloroplasts. The immediate product of the absorption of light energy ATP and NADPH are the compounds that are used later in the process of carbon fixation with the formation of carbon-carbon bonds and the reduction of CO2 to form carbohydrates (CH2O). Thus, the biochemical response in the cells began to chloroplasts in a marine environment.
The colonization of land, according to the existing fossil evidence, began 480 million years ago by green algae similar to current Characeae (terrestrial multicellular algae). Terrestrial plants (embryophyita) evolved from freshwater green algae that adapted some stage of his life to the mainland. The presence of plants on land is proof that two conditions were fulfilled in themselves can be considered fossil record: (1) Concentration of O2 in the atmosphere to allow the formation of a protective layer of ozone O3 solar radiation (2) Existence of non-rocky ground by "digestion" effect of the rocks by carbonic acid formed in acid rain (CO2, water and electricity = CO3H2) and aqueous weathering of rocks.
Probably different types of Characeae resulted in successive rounds to land, different types of land plants (embryophyita):
(1) Cooksonia fossils, first vascular plant, located in the Ordovician period have an age of 428 million years.
(2) Hepatic and ferns (Carboniferous 350 myr)
(3) Antocerophyta (Lower Cretaceous 145 myr)
(4) Angiosperms (Middle Cretaceous 140 myr)
While the first fossil animals capable of living most of his time in terrestrial wetlands are insects and gimnophyona or naked snakes (limbless amphibians or pelvis).
Insects begin colonization of land between the Silurian and Devonian (420 myr ) while the colonization of amphibians dating from the Lower Jurassic (200 myr) even think they existed previously (Carboniferous 318 myr). Probably that none of the first animals colonizers of land was fed in this habitat and the purpose of their visits was to use inhabited earth space with reproductive purpose.
Vegetarians animals arrived to land as phytophagous reptiles form, derived from the Dipnoi (lungfish fish) Sarcopterygii class, in the Carboniferous (350 myr).
Therefore, there was successive assaults on land by plants, followed by successive rounds of phytophagous animals that follow their food source. Thus, the relationship between primitive "plant" and primitive "animals" were established 3.1 billion years ago in a marine environment and remained exclusively at this temperature for 2.7 billion years (87% of the time). Therefore it is not surprising that most of the animal-vegetal relationships that currently exist on land are established million years ago between marine ancestors of both terrestrial species. Knowledge of the phylogenetic help us understand the origin of this relationship from the terrestrial environment to the marine environment.
This animal dependence for plants can be transposed at various levels, also on the dependency between organs and cells.
So animal organs depend on plant organs, animal cell types of multicellular animals depend on plant cell types of multicellular plants and unicellular animals depend on unicellular plants. There is an evolutionary parallelism between the mineral, the vegetable and animal so that the geology has modified this zoology and botany.
We will expose, in later chapters, some examples that allow us to scientifically substantiate the option of using vegetable pronutrients for the proper functioning of animal cells based on the relationships established in geological time between plant and animal cells.