Genetics, brain anatomy and behavior. Dissemination 46th
In blogs 13 (eye and central nervous system origin), 17 (brainstem ganglia chain) and 28 (phylogenetic and adult brain regeneration) we exposed the phylogenetic, and therefore embryonary origin, of the nodes pair chains that constitute the nervous system anatomy from annelids to mammals.
From this explanation is deduced that the visual, olfactory, auditory and cognitive skills are related to the higher or lower development of each of these anatomical structures, and therefore also related to the expression of genes that regulate their formation, as well as the influence of environmental biochemistry, nutrition and toxics, in this expresion. Equally it was explained how luminous physical therapy can help the adult brain regeneration, as it is connected to the first pair of nodes that form the eyes.
Modern neuroimaging based studies provide new relevant information on organic and behavioral pathological aspects and constitute a strong alternative to anthropological and sociological studies for the analysis of nervous diseases and behaviors.
We will expose four concrete examples:
(1) In a dyslexic brain an alteration is produced during neuronal formation, in which a group of neurons and glial cells do not migrate properly during embryonic development, forming a cluster, called ectopia, which disrupt the connections inside the cortex. These clusters can be established in various brain areas of the left hemisphere reducing its activity. This process has been observed to happen in three zones, the left inferior frontal gyrus, temporal-parietal area and occipito-temporal area, all areas involved in reading processing.
(2) A relationship has been established between pathological narcissism and decreased gray matter in the region of the brain responsible for compassion. The data show that the degree of empathy is correlated with a volume of gray matter in the cortex and the reduction of its thickness.
(3) Aggressive behavior is related to low serotonin levels, produced in the upper central nucleus of the brain, whose synthesis is regulated by the THP gene (tryptophan hydroxylase) by secreting an enzyme necessary for serotonin biosynthesis and with low levels of the metabolite 5-HIAA (located in the cerebrospinal fluid).
(4) Finally, criminal activity is related to aggressive behavior (low serotonin levels) and anatomical abnormalities of the frontal lobe (64.5%), temporal lobe abnormalities (29%) and brain white matter atrophy that constitutes the internal area of the cerebral ganglia.
So we may conclude that genetic influences anatomical formation, functionality and therefore the pathology and the behavior. The nutrition, especially copper and zinc, other toxics, such as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and trauma during embryonic stages of development can influence this genetic expression. The reaction to hostile social situations would remain relegated to the background.