Advanced panspermia. Dissemination 40th
It is considered proven that simple organic compounds and compounds related to the origin of life can be synthesized in space even in absence of life forms. This source of organic material could have been able to reach the entire universe from the first moment of the Big Bang 13,700 million years ago, but it has needed appropriate conditions to develop following the laws of natural selection on a universal scale.
That is to say, life on Earth could have formed from the material received by comets that massively bombarded the Earth 3,800 million years ago. Thus, large amounts of water, ammonia, formaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid, which resulted in uracil and xanthine (RNA and DNA precursors), could reach the Earth.
In this blog we consider other hypotheses from existing living organisms on Earth capable of withstanding outer space conditions.
Studies performed directly or as a result of accidental circumstances have proved that certain relatively complex organisms are resistant to the conditions of space travel.
Among these capabilities we will quote:
(1) Absolute vacuum survival [10(-14)] Pa
(2) Massive and cosmic UV survival
(3) Survival to fall in temperature between -272 °C and + 149 °C
(4) Dehydration survival from 85% to 3% of body moisture
Successfully evaluated organisms belong to the following five groups:
1.1 Streptococcus mittis. This bacteria survived for 3 years durante 3 años on a trip to the Moon in the Surveyor 3.
1.2 Bacillus subtilis tested in the laboratory under similar conditions to outer space
1.3 Synechococcus is a cyanobacterium tested under outer space similiar conditions in the laboratory.
1.4 Haloarcula is an halobacteriaceae tested in the laboratory under similar conditions to outer space (Río tinto and Yellowstone)
2.1 Aspergillus versicolor used in the Biorisk experiment by the International Space Station (ISS)
2.2 Penicillium expansum used in the Biorisk experiment by the International Space Station (ISS)
3.1 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a green alga tested in the laboratory with similar conditions to outer space.
4.1 Rhizocarpon geographicum tested in the Foton-M2 mission of the de la European Space Agency (ESA).
4.2 Xanthoria elegans tested in the Foton-M2 mission of the de la European Space Agency (ESA).
5. Protostome invertebrates
5.1 Richtersius coronifer is a tardigrade object of the TARDIS project experiment (spacecraft FOTON-M3 from Russia and the ESA)
5.2 Milnesium tardigradum is a tardigrade object of the TARDIS project experiment (spacecraft FOTON-M3 from Russia and the ESA)
Therefore we can say that life, once evolved, would have in these representatives the opportunity to spread through space and thrive elsewhere with appropriate conditions. Thus, nucleic acids could diffuse from a primitive model, within a living being that would act as a capsule, and deploy their full potential using organic matter extended in different parts of the Universe.