Origin and evolution of Mediterranean calendars: Dissemination 54th
As it is the first installment of 2014 Disclosure blog, it seems appropriate to make a brief review of the calendars systems that have existed around the Mediterranean and its evolution to the present day.
It is unlikely that previous cultures by year 6000 before the present time, developed by genetic families EU-8 (central Europe) and EU-18 (north shore and Mediterranean islands), Pelasgians (Greece), Halaf, Hassoun and Umm (Middle East) and líbicos (North Africa), were available calendar in its modern sense.
The first calendars from which we have news are Shepseskaf calendar solar type, with 12 months of 30 days, dated 4496 years before present in Egypt and the calendar of the city of Nippur of lunisolar type, with twelve months of 29 or 30 days, dated 3735 years before present in Mesopotamia.
The Greeks took as a reference to the beginning of their calendar, the year of the celebration of the first historical Olympiad in the year 2790 before today. There is no unified Greek calendar as each city-state adopted its. So nine Hellenic calendars are known: Attic, Boeotian, Cretan, Delphic, Epirotic, Laconia, Macedonian, Rhodium and Siciliano (Magna Grecia). Of these the Attic type lunisolar calendar, which starts 2790 years before present, was the most widespread.
The first Roman calendar, known as calendar of Romulus, starts the year of the founding of Rome, 2767 years before present. This is a calendar consisting of 10 lunar months so had severe mismatches with the seasons, and difficult to use.
For this reason a reform known as calendar of Numa Pompilius, dividing it into twelve lunar months of 29 and 31 days, 2714 years before present was performed. The beginning of the year was held in the month of Martius as the Romulus calendar.
A third modification was made 2,200 years ago and began the year in the month of Ianuarius (eleventh month in the calendar of Numa).
Finally Julio Cesar 2060 years ago, in collaboration with Sosigenes Alexandria, introduced the Julian calendar, solar character, which remained in effect until the formalization of the current calendar called the Gregorian calendar in 1582, 432 years ago.
Between Julian and Gregorian calendars took place in the year 525, 1489 years agothe incorporation of Christian celebrations in the Julian year known as Computus of Juan I.
This study was commissioned to Dionysius' Exiguus "(Dionisie cel Mic) and is known as Anno Domini. This review also aimed to know the year of the beginning of Christianity because until that date it continued counting the years from the founding of Rome.
Dionysius did not make the basic mistakes of the first calendars, regarding the consistency of months and seasons, but his historical calculations were wrong and these have remained until today because the Gregorian reform did not correct them.
Dionysius calculated the starting date of the Christian era considering the years of reign of Herod I the Great in relation to the years of the reign of Caesar Augustus.
However Caesar Augustus did reign under two names: Octavio since the end of the 2nd Triumvirate (year 714 of the Roman calendar) until the Senate awarded him the title of Augustus (year 718 of the Roman calendar) and like Augusto from 718 until 767 the Roman calendar. This distortion affected the calculation of the dates of government of Augustus and Herod and consequently on the date of initiation of Christian era.
Apparently this began between 4 and 7 years earlier than currently believed. Therefore this year 2014 that we started actually could correspond to the years between 2018 and 2021.
The current year corresponds, most likely, to the year 2020 if we consider the "star" phenomenon described by historians and dated in the year 747 of the Roman calendar.
Although some authors have attributed the "star" phenomenon a comet is unlikely to be that. At that time the appearance of a comet was a carrier of bad omens thus hardly be taken as a positive sign.
If it seems probable that it were a "star" phenomenon starred by called moving stars. So were known planets of our solar system at that time to differentiate them from the fixed stars that are grouped into constellations (source horoscope) to maintain fixed relative position between them.
Among the moving stars (planets) Jupiter was associated with the rising king and decadent King Saturn so that the alignment of both planets, calendar.) In the year 747 of the foundation of Rome, with Earth and its consequent move joint down (stop, rewind, stop and return to the address above) was interpreted as a sign of the announcement of the death of Herod I the Great and the birth of his successor (later adjudicated to Yeshua whose birth would set the beginning of the current.
Thus considering this "star" phenomenon and correcting dates from the reign of Herod probably today we are at the beginning of 2020 of the Christian era.
Finally, the current Gregorian calendar, introduced by Gregory XIII initiative in 1582 with the collaboration of Christoph Klau, corrected a gap 10 days of the spring equinox and organized the months and leap years as we know them today.
However there are other calendars outside the Mediterranean area including highlight the Chinese calendar, lunisolar type, which is in its year 4651 from its attachment by Huang Di (Hun Ko Pao).