Induced pluripotent cells. Disclosure 39
In the last publication (38) in Veterinaria Digital we talked about natural mechanism by which the different type of embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, long-term stem cells, short-term stem cells regenerate damaged tissue.
In current edition we will discuss some concepts on other cells called induced pluripotent stem cells.
In essence there are differentiated adult cells with a capability they had lost, turning them back into pluripotent stem cells, with the capability to regenerate most tissues. This process is realized thanks to the inoculation of foreign genes like Oct3-4, Sox2, Sox-3, Sox-15 and Sox-18. These genes are deemed essential but the percentage of reprogrammation that we achieve with their use oscillate between 0.1 and 0.5%. For this reason, it is important to combine with the previous genes these new genes: c-Myc, L-Myc, M-Myc ,Klf 1, Klf 2, Klf4, Klf 5, LIN 28 and Nanog, because they increase the efficiency of the process.
All the foreign genes cited are transfered from stem cells through retrovirus and are the same which the cell had had in the embryonic phase and which inhibited in the differentiation process. The new genes dedifferentiate the cells.
Obtained cells have the same morfology, expression of certain genes and proteins, DNA methylation patterns, cell duplication time and capability to differentiate cells from other tissues.
The aim of this research line is to produce organs in the future (specially heart, liver and spleen) decreasing the rejection in transplantation and avoid the use of embryos.