Hepatocyte regeneration. Dissemination 68th
These green algae, where the shikimic acid route is initiated, are the ancestors of land plants (embryophyita) group they belong to dicotyledonous angiosperms where Silybum marianum is ranked one of the most Silymarin productive plants.
Silymarin is hepatoprotective whose chemical structure corresponds to that of a flavonoid. The biosynthesis of silymarin occurs in three steps: synthesis of shikimic acid by condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose, phenylalanine synthesis by condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate and shikimic acid, cinnamic acid synthesis by enzymatic lysis of phenylalanine and flavonoid biosynthesis by enzymatic action of CoA Ligase on a derivative of phenylalanine.
When we study each of these steps we conclude that:
(1) The synthesis of shikimic acid is done on plastids of primitive green algae by condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose (two residues of photosynthesis). The shikimic acid (isolated in 1885 from Illicium sp. to Illiciaceae) is recognized as the starting point for a great number of natural substances, is a universal metabolite in higher plants and is considered the precursor of all substances which contain aromatic rings.
Just like the shikimic acid is the ancestor of the phenolic compounds of angiosperms, also these green algae are the ancestors of monocotyledonous angiosperms where Thalassia testudinum is classified, thalassiolin B producer and dicotyledonous angiosperms in which Silybum marianum is classified one of the production plants Silymarin.
Thalassiolin B is a phenolic molecule (flavone glycoside) with structure C22H22O14S, which synthesizes Thalassia testudinum, a monocot angiosperm with known regenerative properties of epithelia; (Regalado,E.L.,M. Rodríguez, R. Menéndez, A.A.Concepción, C.Nogueiras, A.Laguna,A.A. Rodríguez, D.E. Williams, P. Lorenzo-Luaces, O. Valdes & Y. Hernandez. 2009. Repair of UVB-damaged skin by the antioxidant sulphated flavone glycoside thalassiolin B isolated from the marine plant Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König. Mar. Biotechnol. 11: 74-80) por contacto a dosis de 240 mcg/cm2 durante 6 dias.
Por su parte Rodeiro,I [Rodeiro, I at alt . Modulation of biotransformation and elimination systems by BM-21 an aquous ethanolic extract from Thalassia testudinum, and thalassiolin B on humman hepatocyte .Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 4, issue 1 (January, 2012), p. 167-1], This attributes to thalassiolin B the reduction of P-glycoprotein in the hepatocytes, by increasing the expression of the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes that regulate the production of mRNAs encoding ribosomal synthesis of Cytochrome P450 1A1 by accelerating the elimination of toxic converting them into more polar substances and easily excreted in urchin, shrimp, fish, turtles and some marine mammals .
Silymarin is a flavonoid produced by a terrestrial Asteraceae Silybum marianum E. Maguilo, in 1973 demonstrated on in vivo and in vitro experiments, made in rat liversâ, where a portion of liver has been removed, that Silymarin has a significant increase in the formation of ribosomes and the synthesis of DNA as well as protein synthesis. ]Maguilo E, et al. Studies on the regenerative capacity of the liver in rats subjected to partial hepatectomy and treated with silymarin. Arzheim-Forsch Drug Res. 23:161-7. 1973Magliulo E, Carosi PG, Minoli L, et al. Studies on the regenerative capacity of the liver in rats subjected to partial hepatectomyand treated with silymarin. Arzneimittelforschung 1973; 23: 161-7].
Tyutyulkova, N. in 1983 demonstrated that the use of silymarin in rats with experimental hepatitis caused by galactosamine, at dose of 140 mg / kg for 4 days, completely abolished the effect of galactosamine, on the biosynthesis of hepatic proteins and glycoproteins.
[Tyutyulkova N, Gorantcheva U, Tuneva S, et al. Effect of silymarin (carsil) on the microsomal glycoprotein and protein biosynthesis in liver of rats with experimental galactosamine hepatitis. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1983; 5: 181-4] Sonnenbicher, J. y Cody,V.
both published in 1986 studies demonstrating increase in formation mRNA, of ribosome and in consequence of protein synthesis due to the administration of silymarin on damaged liver cells.
[The capacity of silymarin to stimulate protein synthesis has also been studied in neoplastic cell lines, in which no increase in protein synthesis, ribosome formation or DNA synthesis has been found after treatment with silymarin (Sonnenbicher J., y Zetl. L
Progr Clin Biol Res 213, 319 1986).]
[Biochemical effects of the flavonolignane silibinin on RNA, protein and DNAsynthesis in rat livers. In: Cody V, Middleton E, Harborne JB, editors. Plant flavonoids in biology and medicine: biochemical, pharmacological and structure-activity relationship. New York: Alan R Liss Inc., 1986: 319-31]
Luper, S. in 1998 demonstrated that RNA polymerase I is linked to the stimulation of ribosome formation described by the cited authors cited in healthy and damaged. [Luper S. A review of plants used in the treatment of liver disease: part I. Altern Med Rev 1998; 3: 410-21]
Both thalassiolin as silymarin are flavonoids and their phylogenetic origin leads to the ancestors plant of current land plants (mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms). It is believed to have been a key adaptation to the transition to terrestrial life from the ancestral green algae
The enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis derived to enzymes from the primary metabolism of plants, adapting new specific functions.
Therefore the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway has remained static during the evolution of plants but with significant differences of expression mechanisms depending on the colonization and mainland coastal areas. However the animals have used the products of these routes as a tool for regeneration of the digestive system (annelids, fish, mollusks, insects, reptiles, birds and mammals.
So relationships established in the sea millions of years ago have remained in the new terrestrial habitat between land plant species derived from marine green algae and terrestrial animal species derived from annelids.
Therefore the plastic circular DNA from green algae ancestors of land plants contains instructions to initiate the biosynthesis of silmarina culminating in Silybum marianum.