Use of optimizer pronutrients of the hepatic physiology
In high productivity animals, such as birds or pigs, a good liver condition acquires special importance since its deterioration directly affects growth, laying and even the immune response of the animals. Thus, the good functioning of the liver has a direct impact on productive parameters.
In the liver takes place the transformation of xenobiotics (medicines, mycotoxins and other contaminants) through the cytochrome P450 that generates reactive species rich in oxygen. Furthermore, in the liver there is also a high activity of macrophages, which also generates a big quantity of reactive species.
These reactive species of oxygen are free radicals; peroxides (such as hydrogen peroxide) and hidroperoxides of different biomolecules (anions such as peroxide of nitrite and hypochlorite) and other species with high pro oxidative potential. Liver neutralizes this potential through several mechanisms of antioxidant defense such as the enzyme catalase and superoxide dismutase, glutation in reduced state or vitamins E and C.
Liver works in a normoxic state when velocity of formation of reactive species is compensated for a similar speed of neutralisation by antioxidant mechanisms. When the production of reactive species exceeds the mechanisms of antioxidant defense, is produced an state of oxidative stress where phospholipids, unsaturated fatty acids of cell walls, proteins and nitrogenous bases of DNA are oxidised, producing harm or even cellular death. The oxidative stress implies at the beginning a bad operation of liver and secondly a decrease of productive and sanitary parameters.
The oxidative stress can be caused by a hepatic overload, excess of xenobiotics (mycotoxins, medicines and other contaminants) or other pathologic processes.
Use of pronutrients (silymarin) for the optimization of the hepatic physiology
Flavonoids are polyphenolic components of very low molecular weight, formed by 2 benzenic rings (6C) linked by a propanoic bond (3C). According to their structural characteristics, flavonoids are divided in flavones, flavanone, flavonol and anthocyanidins.
The investigations carried out demonstrate the functions of silymarins
Liver protector through the following actions:
- Modifies the external structure of the hepatic cell membranes, avoiding the entrance of toxins into them. As the rate of entrance of toxins in liver is reduced, these ones are finally secreted by kidneys.
- Stimulates of the protean synthesis of the hepatocyte through the RNA polymerase I, reaching an increase in the synthesis of proteins up to 25%. Stimulates the regeneration of damaged cells.
Antioxidant (10 times higher than Vitamin E) through:
- Neutralization of the free radicals as a result of normal metabolic processes.
- Increase of the level of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes and lymphocytes in animals with hepatic damage; glutathione (levels up to 50% higher in liver and intestines).
It has been demonstrated that the use of pronutrients such as silymarin in animal feed optimizes the hepatic function and protects of the negative effects caused by the oxidative stress. Thus, productive and sanitary parameters improve.