Effectiveness of pronutrients against avian coccidiosis
Avian coccidiosis is an endemic disease of worldwide distribution which causes mild signs but considerable economic losses.
Avian coccidiosis is an endemic disease of worldwide distribution which causes mild signs but considerable economic losses. So far, the treatment of this disease has been made mainly by using chemical coccidiostats. In Europe, after the entry into force on May 15, 2002 of EC Regulation No. 2205/2001 of 14 November 2001, part of chemicals coccidiostats have been recalled. This is the case amprolium amprolium-ethopabate, dimetridazole, meticlorpindol, nicarbazin, meticlorpindol / methylbenzoquate, leaving only a few for certain species, with the future trend of total disappearance. The prevention of coccidiosis is also possible by vaccination, but vaccines still show some problems in relation to the manufacturing process, application and effectiveness. This is why the use of natural substances is of great interest as they do not have the disadvantages described above and can control the disease effectively.
What pronutrients are?
There are natural substances in feeds that act as pronutrients and are needed for the body to build fundamental structures. For example, vitamin C and the amino acids lysine and proline are essential for the formation of collagen.
These substances have beneficial effects indirectly through the production in the body of substances that promote the proper functioning of different organs.
Within this group, there are nutrients extracted from certain vegetables that have been shown to improve the health of animals.
This hinders the development of diseases resulting from the effect of coccidia in the intestinal mucosa, improving conversion rates and production parameters.
Some pronutrients interesting for intestinal use
As mentioned above, there are certain plants that contain pronutrients which act indirectly maintaining an optimal physiological state in a natural way. Among these are some, such as:
Holarrhena antidysenterica, is a shrub belonging to the family Apocynaceae. From the bark, leaves and seeds conessine has been isolated, that reinforces natural defense mechanisms against infections caused by parasites (amoebas and worms) (Panda et al, 1992).
Berberis aristata belongs to the family Berberidaceae. From the leaves, fruits and roots of the shrub berberine has been isolated, which favors natural regeneration of liver cells (Sharma, et al, 1993) and stimulates the secretion of bile (BIRDSAIL and Kelly, 1997).
Embelia ribes belongs to the family Myrsinaceae. The fruits contain the embeline, which stimulates natural protection against infections caused by worms and bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
We all know the benefits of garlic, Allium sativum (Liliaceae family). The main components are allicin and ajoene, which stimulate the body’s own detoxification mechanisms and strengthen the natural protection against infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and some protozoa such as Plasmodium berghei (PEREZ et al, 1994), Trypanosoma cruzi (Urbina et al, 1993), E. hystolitica (Mirelman et al, 1987; Ankri et al 1997) and Giardia duodenalis (Soffer and Mokhtar, 1991).
Mechanism of action
Coccidia are parasites that are characterized by a cycle which involvesÂ the invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. After several contacts between the parasite and the epithelium, local immunity is created.
Coccidiostats not prevent the occurrence of the intracellular invasion, allowing contact between guest and host but prevent the cycle of the parasite is completed and thus make possible the emergence of local immunity.
The preparations consisting of plant extracts containing pronutrients are effective during the early days of the parasitic cycle in which the parasite reproduces asexually within the intestinal epithelium. They act by strengthening epithelial cells and strengthening local natural immunity against the coccidia infestations.
The progressive removal of chemical coccidiostats has conditioned the development of other natural products that stand out as being safe, not to develop resistance and not require withdrawal. These products are formulated from pronutrients presenting intestinal activity and are extracted from certain plants.
The results of the experiments described above confirm that pronutrients reinforce the intestinal epithelial cells and enhance local natural immunity, improve production rates, proving to be an interesting alternative to chemical coccidiostats.