1. Physiology of the intestines of birds
The gastrointestinal tract of a bird is a specialized tube that begins at the peak and ends in the sewer. Its primary function is the conversion and digestion of food. The intestine is divided into 5 regions: gut, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and the large intestine (blind, colon and rectum). If intestinal function is affected, digestion, absorption of food, development and well-being of the animal is reduced.
The microorganisms present in the intestinal flora of the birds are mainly bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The abundance and diversity of this microbiota varies along the gastrointestinal tract. The development of the adult intestinal microbiota begins at birth, where the bacteria come from the environment, from the food and from the staff who manipulate the chickens. The crop is rapidly colonized in the first 24 hours after birth. After 1 day, the ileum and the blind are also colonized by bacteria. After 3 days the level of bacteria in the small and large intestine is multiplied by 10. In 2 weeks the adult intestinal microbiota will be established correctly, and after 1 month the cecal flora will develope. With optimal breeding conditions and good quality feed the time required for the adult microbiota to be established can be reduced.
Within the gastrointestinal tract there are multiple interactions between the cells of the organism of the bird, the intestinal environment, the cells of the intestinal flora and the components of the feed. These interactions emphasize the great importance of the role of the intestinal microbiota for the health and well-being of the animal. Present animal breeds have such genetic potential for production that they must be fed with high energy protein feed. This implies that the digestive system functions in extreme conditions and the pathogenic microorganisms can make their appearance. Therefore, it is necessary to pay special attention to the care of the intestinal flora.
2. As intestinal conditioners there are natural additives composed of extracts of plants with antioxidant properties, which contribute pronutrients to the food that help to improve the digestibility of the diet and maintain intestinal integrity. Within the digestive tract they act together forming a polysaccharide gel that facilitates the growth of bacteria beneficial to the organism, such as acidophilic bacteria, while inhibiting the proliferation of pathogens, improving the absorption of nutrients, optimizing the digestive properties of the mucosa and promote optimal growth. Useful for the control of intestinal pathogenic flora such as Salmonella, E. coli, Clostridium and Staphylococcus.
3. AGPs (or growth promoting antibiotics) are antibiotic drugs to increase the growth of animals destined for production to obtain a higher yield of the carcass. It is known that AGPs were introduced in the 1950s as additives in the diet of animals intended for the production of meat, eggs and milk. The results of your application do not allow discussion. However, since its inception the debate has opened on possible negative effects of its use in relation to food security as well as impacts on animal welfare and consumer health.
Accordint to this arises the question: Is the antibiotic used in animal production increasing the potential risk to human and animal health?
This question can be answered by indicating that the persistent use of medicated feed or AGP increases the selective pressure on the microorganisms present in the farm animals' microbiota; Selecting those are most resistant to antibiotics. The normal population of intestinal bacteria is a reservoir of genes that encode resistance to antibiotics. Consequently, the risk of animal and plant products contaminated with resistant bacteria in the food chain can not be ignored and should therefore be avoided. Thus, European legislation through the new regulation (EC 1831/2003) banned AGPs in Europe from 2006. Since then, research and development of new AGP substitute products such as Natural additives.
Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD) is an AGP and improves food efficacy. Prevents necrotic enteritis of birds; Induces changes in the intestinal microflora, benefiting the effects of promoting growth by reducing the presence of pathogenic microbial agents and producers of toxins that depress growth.
In 2015, a study was carried out at the University of North Carolina (USA) in four batches of 160 male broilers of Ross breed each day, from day 0 to day 42 of life, in order to compare the effects of the use of a natural additive with conditioning and intestinal regeneration effect (Alquernat Nebsui) against the effects of an AGP (Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate).
- Lot 1: Bacitracin methylene disalicylate with a new bed
- Lot 2: Bacitracin methylene disalicylate with old bed
- Lot 3: Alquernat Nebsui with new bed
- Lot 4: Alquernat Nebsui with old bed
The feed was administered ad libitum in both groups:
Alquernat Nebsui was administered at a rate of 0.5 kg / Tm throughout the study
- Bacitracin methylene disalicylate was administered at a rate of 0.5 kg / Tm throughout the study
- Body weight at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days.
- Conversion rate
- Carcass yield (%), fat (%) and weight of the breasts (%) on day 43.
By using Alquernat Nebsui we obtain:
- Better conversion rate
- Less fat%
- Better channel performance (%)
- More meat (breast)
For every 1,000,000 broilers that consume 2.73 tons of Alquernat Nebsui:
- The feed consumed is reduced by 33.09 Tm.
- The meat produced is increased by 40 Tm.
This natural additive can be found in the market under the name of Alquernat Nebsui, manufactured by Biovet, S.A.